literature review in sla writing

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Literature review in sla writing

Privacy Policy. Downloads Download data is not yet available. AbuSeileek, A. Language Learning and Technology 76— Mahmoud and R. Ashwell, T. Journal of Second Language Writing 9: — Journal of Second Language Writing — Nassaji and E. New York: Routledge. Language Teaching Research Journal — System —9.

Applied Linguistics — System —8. Eubank, L. Selinker and M. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Journal of Second Language Writing —8. Journal of Second Language Writing 57—8. Language Teaching 51 2 : — London: Edward Arnold. Doughty, C. Doughty and J. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ellis, R. System — Kroll ed.

Journal of Second Language Writing 8: 1— Ferris, D. Exploring the Dynamics of Second Language Writing — Journal of Second Language Writing 49— New evidence on the short- and long-term effects of written error correction. Hyland and F. Friedrich ed. Teaching Academic Writing 93— London, UK: Continuum.

Studies in Second Language Acquisition — New evidence on the effects of error correction in L2 writing classes. System 24— Foreign Language Annals 71—6. Procedia — Social and Behavioral Sciences — Language Teaching 83— Modern Language Journal 1— English Teaching and Learning 29— Karim, K. Language Teaching Research. Modern Language Journal 7: — This study is an example of the fifth stage of pedagogical reasoning, reflection. Reflection differs from evaluation in that it is a more formal process and involves a conscious reenactment of teaching, with the aim of learning from the experience Shulman, , p.

In contrast, the process of evaluation may be reenactive and may result in powerful intuitions or emotional responses, but may not be detailed or clearly focused. Thus, teachers may not learn anything truly lasting or relevant from evaluation alone. For teacher learning to take place as a result of reflection, we argue that teachers need to record accounts of teaching events over time. Then the accounts must be analyzed for insights into specific issues.

As noted above, we evaluated our literature review assignments negatively; however, the specific reasons for this evaluation were open to discovery because we were able to examine our written and recorded teaching accounts for mentions of the literature review assignment, a step that revealed a number of reasons for our negative assessment. The final stage, new comprehensions, is concerned with the learning that teachers achieve through experience and then add to their pedagogical content knowledge Shulman, , p.

Although Shulman has asserted that reflection does not necessarily result in new comprehensions p. From our reflection on the literature review assignment, we concluded that students were generally unfamiliar with the literature review genre, frequently unable to select an appropriate topic, largely unfamiliar with what sources to consult to answer specific questions, and sometimes unable to find the resources they needed.

These new, focused, specific comprehensions helped us revise the literature review assignment for future use. A skilled instructor. Based on the twin frameworks of pedagogical content knowledge and pedagogical reasoning, we are now in a position to propose a characterization of skilled SLA teachers. We will base our examples in SLA, as this is the subject we taught when we did this study.

First, they must possess adequate pedagogical content knowledge that has been developed by surveying and comprehending a wide variety of SLA textbooks and academic articles and actively considering the relationships between them. Second, they critically interpret and prepare texts for students by selecting and segmenting appropriate texts into workable class meeting units. Third, they have an adequate repertoire of "analogies, metaphors, examples, demonstrations" and "explanations" Shulman, , p.

Fourth, they command a repertoire of teaching strategies from which they plan activities and modes of presentation that promote students' learning. Importantly, they adapt their presentation of concepts to student ability, background, and interest levels, and for the purposes of teaching, they ground their comprehensions of the content in how they believe their students might misconceive the content.

Finally, in the classroom, they are able to respond fairly spontaneously to student non-comprehension using alternative explanations and activities in order to provide new doorways through which students can enter the conceptual world of SLA. Following the three propositions stated above, our overall research questions are: How can our pedagogical content knowledge of SLA be characterized? How did we compare to the description of a skilled instructor offered above?

In this section, we will outline our backgrounds relevant to this study in order to provide readers with a sense of our apprenticeship e. We believe this description is necessary to understanding our initial images of what graduate classes should look like, how they should be conducted, what our roles as teachers should be, what materials students should interact with, and how students' learning should be assessed.

We will also briefly describe the SLA classes we taught. We would like to state here that in describing our backgrounds we do not intend to ascribe responsibility to anyone but ourselves for what we are and were, strong or weak as we were as instructors of a course new to us. Greta had an M. She also took courses on discourse analysis, the history of English, phonology, functional grammar, and language testing during the interim between her M. David had an M.

David and Greta attended the same doctoral program in an overseas branch campus of an American university although in two different geographic cohorts , took courses from the same teachers on the same topics such as research methodology, statistics, the analysis of spoken discourse, curriculum design, research in second language reading and writing, computer assisted language learning, first and second language listening research, and advanced issues in testing.

Courses were taught through lectures, and student presentations and group discussions. Course requirements consisted of extensive reading of both textbooks and research articles, midterm and final tests, and final papers reporting on original data-driven research. We were both experienced EFL teachers at the time we did this study, with an accumulated 32 years of experience between us. By the time we began the study, we had taught a few semesters of graduate level courses such as teaching methods and language testing.

Greta had had a one-credit SLA course in the late s, and in the early s she audited a three-credit course. Both courses were lecture-based surveys of the early development of SLA as a field, and reviews of past and then-current theoretical studies.

The lecturers' styles for both courses were abstract and based in the academic discourse of the class readings. During her doctoral studies, Greta researched the acquisition of suprasegmental aspects of English pronunciation, and the effects of educational policy on teachers. David took two one-credit seminars on SLA in addition to a three-credit course in the late s, which included reading a mainstream textbook and journal articles.

The lecturer closely followed the main course text. David approached the course paper requirement by conducting an original data driven project on syntactic constraints on code-switching, an experience that triggered David's subsequent and sustained interest in SLA research. David shaped his research towards lexical acquisition and language testing. Greta taught her initial three-credit SLA course in Spring, at a medium-sized university in the U.

The ten students were M. They ranged in age from 22 to There were four males and six females. Two of the students were nearing the end of their academic degree programs, four were midway through, and four were taking the course in their first semester of study. With one exception, the students had no previous courses in linguistics. David initially taught a three-credit SLA course to two groups of M. One class, held in central Japan, had 13 students and the other class, held in western Japan, had 22 students.

The students in both classes ranged in age from 26 to David's students were from Japan, the U. As most of the students were part- or full-time teachers, classes were held in the evenings and on weekends to accommodate their work schedules. While there was no policy requiring students to do so, they were strongly advised to delay taking the SLA course until near the end of their degree programs and just before an arduous comprehensive examination.

As a result, the vast majority of students had earned at least 21 graduate credits and had been introduced to many of the concepts that formed the core of the SLA course. In addition, the students were strongly motivated to learn the material because of a perception that the SLA course content formed a large part of the comprehensive exam. The data elicitation instrument was a written interview see Appendix. The items were written in response to two general questions we posed at the beginning of the study: "What challenges are we facing in teaching this course content for the first time?

The interview protocol was finalized a third of the way through the semester. We then spent the semester answering the questions, and then exchanged our answers by ordinary mail for comment at the end of the semester. To answer our research questions, we categorized our responses according to the six stages of pedagogical reasoning suggested by Shulman : comprehension, transformation, instruction, evaluation, reflection, and new comprehensions.

We scrutinized the data we had categorized under "transformation" and further categorized them under the four components of transformation detailed above: preparation, representation, selection, and adaptation. We categorized the data independently and then compared our categorizations. Differences were resolved through discussion.

The data suggest that at the outset of our teaching the course, our levels of comprehension of SLA content were different, and that this resulted in different styles of preparation for teaching. Greta's comprehension of SLA texts was not as broad or deep as David's. Greta was familiar with SLA theories in an implicit sense, and she was familiar with the general themes of seminal SLA research and the names associated with them.

Because she had done research on acquisition of suprasegmentals, she had an explicit understanding of speech processing theory, age constraints, etc. However, she did not have an explicit, multifaceted understanding of the theories and concepts embodied in the whole range of research being done. Thus, it was not clear to her how the various areas of SLA research e. The features of Greta's comprehension of SLA content had profound effects on her preparation of texts for the course. Her lack of explicit, global familiarity with a range of texts had several interrelated effects: First, it was difficult for her to know which SLA topics should be introduced in the course, and how much time should be devoted to them.

She had tried to locate other teachers' syllabuses but failed to do so in time for the course SLA had only been taught once before in her program, several years earlier. She came to depend on the implicit syllabus of the textbook she selected but found as the course progressed that this was inadequate for determining which topic would be covered during a specific class meeting.

Second, although she was able to prepare on a week-by-week basis by reading the textbook and related articles intensively, she found that the depth and scope of her lessons were strongly bound to the text. Towards the end of the course, Greta ran out of time before chapters on more recent psycholinguistic research could be covered and spent more time than needed on earlier concepts such as contrastive analysis and behaviorism.

Third, she could not reconcile her course goals with SLA research reports. Her goals were for the students to "form an interest in a specific area of SLA" and to look "for opportunities where they might collect some data in response to the issue they became interested in.

She did not know which reports would most effectively serve students' developing interests on specific topics. David had a broader and deeper comprehension of SLA textbooks and research reports. He states, "When I started my doctoral studies, I bought Rod Ellis' book which had just come out this was and I began reading it in preparation for the SLA course or courses which I thought I would have to take as part of my coursework. David's comprehension of SLA content was enough to give him a grasp of the "larger world of research in which we find UG positions, interface and non-interface positions, sociolinguistic positions, cognitive orientations, and so on.

On one hand, he felt that the field was fragmented, but that perhaps one should not attempt to integrate these areas: "Managing to make strong connections between different areas might mean I've simplified the field too much. Two factors strongly enhanced David's preparation of texts for his course: His comprehension of a range of SLA texts, and a strong grasp of the time constraints imposed by the course.

David relied on his comprehension of texts to select suitable textbooks for his course. He rejected one textbook when he realized he would be unable to get many of the research reports mentioned in it. Without them, he thought students might have difficulty understanding concepts presented in the textbook. David's preparation of texts for students was not as strongly tied to the main textbook he chose. He also integrated supplementary research reports and textbooks with the topics he had decided to cover.

By the time the course was over, he had 10 textbooks and 63 research reports and articles on reserve, covering 11 of the 14 topics he intended to teach. The topics and texts that David chose were integrated with his main goal, which was to "provide a survey of SLA research to illuminate principal factors underlying L2 learning of adults. David knew that he would meet with students fourteen times during the course. He prepared for the course by writing fourteen original literature reviews, which required him to read intensively on specific topics.

He applied the criteria of recency and applicability to the classroom to studies he read to prepare his literature reviews. Although the process was time consuming and stressful, it was ultimately useful as it forced David to read the literature in breadth and depth and it informed his choices of which texts to include in the course reading packet. Notwithstanding access to syllabuses and reading packets put together by two previous instructors of the course, David wrote the syllabuses based on his own comprehension of the field and his views of which theories and concepts were most important.

RQ 2: Representations and selection of instruction. Creating relevant, comprehensible, convincing, and timely representations of SLA content for students was a singularly painful challenge for both Greta and David. Greta found that she was unable to anticipate every question students would have e. Can't any combinations or words or sounds be used to communicate, if everyone comes to share an understanding of them? What's an example, and how would the sentence change if the learner's parameter were reset?

Even with David's more in-depth comprehension of content, he found that:. The ability to create effective and compelling representations for students was essential, not only to explain content and to respond to student questions, but to motivate students to wrestle with abstract concepts, such as language universals, competition, markedness, or restructuring over the course of the week semester.

Ultimately, the degree of abstraction inherent in the course content seemed to create problems. David states:. The difficulty both of us experienced in forming representations for SLA content seemed related to our comprehension of the metalanguage of linguistic description and SLA, and the extent to which specific SLA theories were applicable to classroom learning. Greta found that thinking of linguistic examples was difficult. However, she found that research reports were more helpful than textbooks in that the reports often provided specific linguistic examples e.

She also found that it was easier to find or think of examples for syntax and morphology e. Both of us found that our comprehension of the different areas of SLA influenced our ability to create representations. David found that his lack of "deep, well-integrated knowledge" of the social aspects of SLA created trouble for him "being able to explain concepts and theories in more detail" and for him to "provide additional examples if necessary.

Both of these hypotheses appear to have immediate classroom applications, and they invite teacher action and creativity. Explaining continuous and categorical perception, and mental representations necessary to understanding speech processing theory was difficult, because these terms do not seem applicable to classroom practice, even though they go far in explaining why adult second language learners have accents.

The data suggest that while both of us struggled with SLA representations, we had more facility with planning and carrying out instruction. Our descriptions of instruction are straightforward and detailed, and reveal a clear sense of purpose.

David centered his class around interactive lectures. To make the classes interactive, he asked students specific questions, asked them to summarize his comments periodically, and used their questions to generate discussion. David also moved the chairs and tables in his classrooms so that students would face each other, explaining: "The purpose was to make it psychologically easier for students to join in what I hoped would be a considerable amount of interaction rather than a straight lecture.

While David had learned SLA formally through lecture, he consciously created a "graduate seminar atmosphere. David used students' questions to create additional reading assignments and interactive discussions. On several occasions, he assigned two readings that covered the same topic but from two different points of view: "I have often found that reading about the same topic expressed by different writers is helpful. Since many students were either learners or teachers of English or Japanese, he designed a lesson on prototypicality e.

This was partly because he had done one as a master's degree student and partly because he believed it had been an intense learning experience with real life applicability: "I became a "mini-expert" in that area [maturational constraints]. I did encounter several situations in which I needed to undertake literature reviews, e.

Greta had originally planned to lecture extensively. She states: "I had this very foolish notion that I would stand up at the front of the room and spout out wonderful and confident things about SLA, like a previous teacher had done. Therefore, she designed activities that would allow students opportunities to say and write their beliefs in accordance to specific questions she would pose:.

As the course progressed, Greta began to give shorter lectures interspersed with breaks, interactive discussions, question and answer sessions, and pair and group activities. She believed that inductive, discovery type learning activities would motivate students to learn content, and at the same time, develop students' confidence in interpreting linguistic data.

A few topics resisted interactive discussion and discovery activities, including Universal Grammar and strong and weak interface positions. Other topics seemed to lend themselves to discovery learning. Greta says:. Topics that were difficult to adapt to independent learning activities were abstract, while topics more easy to adapt could be demonstrated in more observable linguistic and learning phenomena.

Greta wanted SLA to seem real to students as language teachers and so she assigned students to read language textbooks and "to identify the theories and assumptions of the authors they found in the textbooks. Greta intended for the analyses and presentations of SLA articles to serve as the basis for literature reviews students were to write. She thought that writing a literature review would expose students to studies according to their own interests, and would give them the opportunity to synthesize information.

Greta also assigned the literature review because this is what she herself had done as a graduate student. To reiterate, we both designed a variety of activities and assignments with some facility, with sensitivity to the content being presented, and for reasons that were clear to us. RQ 3: Adaptation to students. Both of us adapted to student abilities, interests, and previous knowledge as the course progressed, and our facility with adaptation was related to the role of the course in our respective programs, and to our comprehension of SLA texts.

We both responded to student non-comprehension, even if we could not do so immediately. David understood his students' level of knowledge at the outset of the SLA course because he had taught all of them previously and he knew that most of them were nearing the end of the program: "When I handed out the syllabus on the first day of class, I believe they had requisite schema to have some idea of what most of the topics would be about.

He also knew that his students. David's decision to develop a reserve library was also based as an adaptation to earlier experiences with the students in other courses he had taught:. Greta was new to her program, and had taught half the students in the course previously.

The course had no defined programmatic purpose e. After several class meetings Greta was challenged by students' lack of exposure to topics that were likely essential to comprehending much SLA content, such as communicative competence, discourse, and the role of interaction in acquisition, she says: "Students had never studied discourse analysis, and had only a weak understanding of how communication is constructed between users.

They didn't know anything about genre, or sociolinguistics. Greta spent a lot of energy adapting to students in these areas by locating or creating linguistic examples and explanations for the phenomena being used to illustrate the theories. She also felt that the students lacked experience with theory: "Students had no background in theory.

They felt intimidated by theory, I think, and didn't see it [theorizing] as something they did in every day life. She tried to familiarize students with theory in a language teaching context by using language textbooks and asking students to figure out what theories the authors were basing their writing on.

Unfortunately, students tended to simply describe the obvious features of the textbooks and not state any opinions about the authors' theories. The students in general did not state their opinions on any of the SLA content. As one student said, "I'm in my silent period.

Greta created lessons in which she tried to demonstrate that "the writer's opinions very much come into play in terms of the research questions that form the review, the coverage or lack of coverage the writer may give a particular aspect of previous research, or in the way previous research is presented in terms of the writer's assumptions. RQ 4: Areas of growth and change. We identified several areas of growth and change.

First, both of us also commented on how, as our courses progressed, we took the role of language teachers in explaining content to our students. We think that our shifts in self-image constitute efforts on our part to adapt to students' interests and previous knowledge. For us, knowledge of one area of teaching language teaching was a rich source of representations that we would use when teaching in a different area a finding that has been noted in other educational contexts Shulman, , p.

Given our long experience as language teachers, it is not surprising that we would relate to our students as language teachers as a means of teaching content. From David:. David noted that presenting the content this way seemed to help the non-native English speakers in his class "to make more sense of what the original writers were saying. Second, we grew in our understanding of how we could broaden and deepen our comprehension and thus improve our facility for preparing texts for future classes.

David felt that the lectures he had prepared most thoroughly had resulted in the best student outcomes: "The early lectures were clear and well organized and as shown by the students' mid-term results, they had grasped the information well and in sufficient detail.

The key, for him, was whether or not he knew what the "key issues" were in a given topic. When he did not have a sense of the key issues, he could not transform and teach the topic in a way that satisfied him. Armed with this knowledge, he committed himself to a self-imposed course of intensive reading on sociolinguistic aspects of SLA. He also sought out a specialist in the field for extensive conversations.

Greta reflected on the issue of her comprehension as it related to syllabus creation. She concluded that an overall topical syllabus was needed for her to enhance her comprehension of the course content in the long term by helping her set parameters on what to read and think of effective representations in the short term. Third, we developed a better understanding of the challenges facing students as they attempted to write literature reviews. We affirmed our beliefs that retaining the literature review as an assessment of student learning was important.

At the same time, we developed specific ideas on helping students write them. In other words, we adapted to the students we had taught during our first course. In general, we wanted to break down the assignment into smaller, more manageable portions. This would be more suited to students' abilities in light of their lack of experience writing literature reviews.

Further we would know much earlier in the course how well students were doing with the assignment, thus giving us more opportunities for evaluation of students' learning. Greta states:. David further states, "I need to provide even more explicit information about writing literature reviews. I will add more options in terms of course papers.

I would especially welcome data-driven research projects. We identified several trigger points for growth and change in our teaching. In the interests of space, only two are reported here. One trigger point was our extreme discomfort at not being able to use SLA content representations with the degree of facility we aspired to.

As we completed our interviews, it became clear that our discomfort with representations was linked to our level of comprehension and modes of preparation of content. Our discomfort, and the associations we made between the different aspects of pedagogical reasoning created a focus through which we could newly comprehend what our weaknesses were, why we had them, and what we could do about them.

We also gained new comprehension of the texts themselves, realizing that some topics, particularly abstract ones, were simply difficult to create representations for, and that special effort would be needed. A second trigger point was our effort to adapt to the students. We were frustrated at our inability in the short term to effectively deal with certain student attributes such as their unwillingness to interact or talk in class, their difficulty in synthesizing information and writing it up as a literature review, and their lack of background in linguistics.

In terms of increasing student engagement with the content in the classroom, we created many classroom activity plans for the next time we teach SLA. I will add a variety of small tasks. I will probably have students work on discussion questions or reactions to quote from readings. Another idea is that I might set up groups who take different sides of an issue. For instance, one group's task might be to summarize reasons why input in important and what might be gained from input.

Another group might summarize why input alone is insufficient. This study represents an account of reciprocal interviews as a means to self reflection, and as such, is an embodiment of a view of research in which "the beliefs, cognitions, attitudes, and decision making processes of the teachers' themselves" are of primary importance Widdowson, , p. Conducting our mutual interviews and viewing them through the lens of pedagogical reasoning provided us with a number of salient insights relevant to ourselves, TESOL and applied linguistics faculty development, teacher development, and SLA.

For example, we discovered that our variable comprehension of SLA texts and theories had profound effects on our course planning, the way we taught, and our level of comfort. Through reflection, we developed well defined strategies for self-directed study and course-design-specific thinking to increase our comprehension of content specifically for the purpose of teaching it. In sum, the interviews, analyses, and reflection were highly worthwhile, both personally and professionally.

The need for field-specific discussion of faculty development. We believe that self and peer reflection are cornerstones of effective faculty development in TESOL and applied linguistics teacher education programs. At the same time, there needs to be more discussion of the issues of faculty preparation and development in these fields.

We have been encouraged by recent publications and presentations on topics such as defining content that should be included in TESOL and applied linguistics graduate and certificate programs e. However, discussion is needed on a number of additional issues, such as identifying topics that tend to be conceptually difficult for students, discovering why these are difficult, and suggesting effective means of teaching them.

Answers to these questions may lay in sharing compelling metaphors and examples i. Other academic disciplines have regular publication venues in which the teaching of discipline-specific content is discussed e. The role of doctoral level educators. Another significant issue requiring further consideration is the role of doctoral programs and doctoral level educators in preparing future faculty. This topic is receiving attention in the fields of mathematics and physics e. Surely TESOL and applied linguistics can benefit by acting out of a sensibility of themselves as developed, stand-alone disciplines with a vested interest in inculcating key values and accepted bodies of knowledge in those who will carry the disciplines forward into future generations.

As a result of our investigation, we believe that the development of pedagogical content knowledge is key to ensuring that new faculty can provide engaging, comprehensible, and educationally valuable courses even in their first semester of teaching a course that is new to them. Whatever teachers of doctoral students can do to develop doctoral students' ability to explain difficult, abstract content should be useful in preparing students for their future roles as instructors; this might include asking doctoral students to present a substantial topic to their classmates, or holding elective seminars on teaching TESOL or applied linguistics content which make use of videotaped teaching presentations and discussion.

Doctoral faculty can tell their doctoral students their rationale for selecting particular content and then teaching it a particular way, and can remind their students that some of them will become graduate level teachers.

Finally, doctoral faculty can invite student commentary on course assignments they are asked to do. This may enable students to consider what types of assignments, and what specific features of those assignments, seem to effectively allow and encourage demonstration of student learning. Teachers and their students as stakeholders in SLA. Our experiences teaching SLA courses for the first time were highlighted in this article because the subject matter presented singular teaching challenges.

Interviews with experienced applied linguistics faculty reveal two reasons for this: First, the field has grown exponentially in recent years, becoming difficult for faculty to truly comprehend it all. Second, growth has also meant diversification of the field, making it problematic in deciding what topics to include in a course.

Students in one of David's classes commented on the visual "dreariness" of their textbooks, a factor they claimed dampened their interest in the field.

THESIS STATEMENT MUSIC MORALITY

COVER LETTER EXAMPLES SPANISH

These views do not need to be incompatible. In particular, inter-language systems might involve errors based on L1, L2 and other forms. In support of this position, they found that only 4. A weaker view of either of the two main positions, outlined above, would still, presumably, predict something about the proportion of errors to be expected from each source: if errors are due mainly to interference, one would expect more interference errors but if they are due mainly to developmental strategies, a majority of developmental errors should occur.

In error analysis, a difficulty arises in trying to assign source of error, especially as many errors seem to have multiple origins. Developmental errors are those which resemble forms produced by children learning the language in question as their mother tongue. Interference errors are ones which clearly reflect interference from L1, for instance, forms such as "I have hunger" produced by speakers whose source language is French or Spanish. Unfortunately there appears to be no way, at present, to decide which source is operating in such cases or whether both are.

A further problem occurs in trying to analyze inter-language errors, by which I mean those not due to L1 or L2. Indeed, as Frith points out, it is very difficult to discover what the proponents of interlanguage systems consider to be the characteristics of such systems. It is not clear what they would describe as interlanguage errors, whether they would expect such errors to be systematic or idiosyntactic and what proportion of them might be expected. Assuming, however, that analysis by source is still possible, it would be interesting to find out how adults perform as regards error production.

If the creative construction theory is correct, should adults also be expected to produce a high proportion of developmental errors? This study was undertaken partly to find out what proportion of adults' errors would be developmental, assuming from observations on teaching adults that a greater proportion than 4.

Other people who have analyzed adult errors have found both developmental and interference errors arise. Taylor suggests that beginners may have to rely more on their source language in formulating hypotheses about the target language grammar, whereas more advanced students could be expected to have reached a stage where they are capable of making generalizations based on the target language itself.

He found that beginners made more interference errors than intermediate students. It is also possible that sources of errors are relevant for studies of the ability to correct errors. Krashen proposes that adult learners acquire language in ways similar to children naturally and that they also learn language more consciously as a result of more formal teaching methods.

What they learn is used to monitor their language production, given situations where they have occasion to monitor, such as in written work as opposed to informal conversation. Where monitoring is not possible, the errors that occur tend to be developmental i.

This suggests a need to find out whether this implies that developmental errors are actually harder to monitor than those from other sources. The problems of ascribing errors to different sources have already been mentioned. Even if one can definitely describe an error as due to interference, there may still be difficulties in deciding whether the interference is phonological, syntactic or semantic. Error corrections may be useful in determining the precise form of interference, for instance in deciding between phonological and syntactic origins.

This is crucial for the creative construction theory, which refers to syntactic errors when it claims that most errors will be developmental. An error due to phonological interference is not considered a counter-argument to the theory. One error which is common amongst Spanish learners of English occurs in the structure: pronoun -be - X, where the subject pronoun is omitted, to give forms such as:.

Most commonly, the omitted pronoun is "it" but it may also be "he", "she" or "they". They reject the idea that it is due to syntactic interference from Spanish which allows a subject NP to be omitted, given a clear context. Instead, they suggest that it may arise because in Spanish "It's X" would be expressed as "Es X", with phonological similarity leading Spanish speakers to say "Is X" instead of "It's" in English.

As evidence, they show that subjects produce "is" instead of "it's" in imitation tasks, and when they asked their subjects orally to correct sentences of the form "Is X", they would insert "he" or "she" if possible but would otherwise repeat the same form; for example, they would give "Is a book" as a correction of "Is a book", as though they thought that they had in fact made a correction. Evidence from written, rather than spoken, error corrections may help to clarify this issue.

There are, then, several problems in the field of adult foreign language learning as far as error analysis and error correction are concerned. The present study seeks to follow up some of the issues raised by previous investigations in this area and to suggest further research. Error evaluation studies proliferated in the late s and in the s, motivated quite explicitly by a desire to improve language pedagogy. In these studies, judgments were based on three basic categories: comprehensibility, seriousness and naturalness of the grammar and the lexis.

In this judgment process, judges have to keep in mind that there are two kinds of errors: global and local. Global error is the error which affects overall sentence organization my house beautiful red , and local error is the error which affects single elements in a sentence I want an hot dog. The evaluation of learner error poses a great number of problems. It is not clear what criteria judges have used when asked to assess the categories of an error. Indeed, error evaluation is influenced by the context in which the errors occurred.

Based on the above literature, errors produced by a foreign language learner in her acquisition process will be analyzed identifying their possible producers. Then, the research methodology is presented, and in the results, as will be seen afterwards, four kinds of errors are classified. They are:. General Objective: To analyze the errors produced by a foreign language learner in her acquisition process. The subject is a Spanish-speaking student from Colombia who is studying at a public university in Antioquia, Colombia.

She has been studying English in the above university for five months. She passed English 1 level with a grade of 4. This course was taken at the university this year with a different teacher. Currently, she is finishing English 2 level. In her English class, there are only eight students.

All of them are Colombians and none speaks English fluently. This research is a case study. Yin , p. He then adds: "In other words, you would use the case-study method because you deliberately wanted to cover contextual conditions believing that they might be highly pertinent to your phenomenon of study". The student was assessed using the clinical elicitation method CE. The CE method involves getting the informant to produce data of any sort, for example, by means of a general interview or by asking the learner to write a composition.

During the study, the learner wrote a composition entitled "My Life in Colombia" where she was able to use simple present, simple past and present perfect, which are the tense formation topics studied in English levels I and II. Their description was based on surface strategy taxonomy due to the fact that I focused on omissions, additions, misinformations and misorderings.

I also kept in mind overt and covert errors and possible learner deviations related to correctness and appropriateness. Erika's errors also were analyzed in terms of whether they were due to interference from Spanish or to developmental strategies. This sample took place two weeks after she wrote this composition. She was given as much time as she needed to make corrections before I checked it. The main goal was to identify how many errors she really wrote and which of them were only mistakes or slips performance.

As I said above, the student was assessed using the clinical elicitation method CE , using a personalized composition. Corder classifies errors in terms of the difference between the learner's utterance and the reconstructed version and proposes four different categories:. The presentation of the error analysis is developed in the following way:. Thirdly, error analysis. Finally, other errors made by Erika in her composition, classified in the same strategy taxonomy.

In the underlined part of this sentence, Erika omitted the subject pronoun "I" before the verb, as a result of the Spanish influence since in this language people normally use tacit subject pronouns. As mentioned, omission is considered to be the absence of an item that should appear in a well-formed utterance.

In this sample, L1 verbal conjugation influenced Erika's L2 grammatical structures, affecting directly the rules and modifying the usages of L2 grammar categories. Based on Spratt et al. The authors point out that "an interference or transfer is an influence from the learner's first language L1 on the second language". In the underlined part of this sentence, Erika added the verb to be to a present simple sentence because she probably assumes that the verb to be has to be in all the sentences.

As outlined earlier, addition is considered to be the presence of an item that should not appear in a well-formed utterance. This error was unconsciously made, because her learning process has just started and she had been working out how to organize the elements that comprise L2. As can be seen, her process was not yet complete. This kind of error is called developmental error Spratt et al, In the underlined part of this sentence, Erika used two incorrect forms.

The first one is "there" instead of "where" and the second one is "clime" instead of "weather". These errors are the result of the lack of English vocabulary, and the wrong use of the meanings provided by the dictionary. On the other hand, we should also remember that misinformation is considered to be the use of the wrong form of the morpheme or structure. This same example could have another interpretation and on equally convincing explanation.

In other words, the learner's perlocutive act could be different, possibly she meant to say: "I know the city of Cartagena. There the weather is hot", but she was not aware of the correct English punctuation and this misinformation, added to vocabulary problems, changed the sentence meaning. In this case, the word "clime" meets interference error requirements, and becomes a false cognate. In the underlined part of this sentence, Erika incorrectly ordered the words in this sentence.

The correct syntactical order was "… in the most beautiful country of South America". In connection to this, we should bear in mind that misordering is considered to be the incorrect placement of a morpheme or group of morphemes in an utterance. In addition, misinformation is present in the sample above. This is evidenced in the use of "very" instead of "the most". In this case, L1 syntax influenced Erika's L2 grammatical structures, modifying the position of L2 grammar categories, affecting meaning, and indicating interference.

On the other hand, the student composition makes us realize that it is important to keep in mind overt and covert errors and possible learner deviations related to correctness and appropriateness. In Erika's composition all her errors were overt. An overt error is a clear deviation in form; for example:. Erika's composition did not have covert errors due to the fact that the wellformed sentences meant that she expressed her ideas appropriately, according to the context. Finally, Erika's errors were also analyzed in terms of whether they were due to interference from Spanish, due to developmental strategies.

I present some samples taken from Erika's written composition and which are classified in two main categories: developmental and interference see Table 3. As can be seen in the table, the composition does not have a "unique" error type. Additionally, the samples evidence the learner's will to get the message across.

Learning a foreign language demands not only willingness, but also practice and commitment by both learner and teacher. In addition, the work of error analysis theoreticians Burt et al, ; Cancino et al, who focused on collecting, categorizing and analyzing students' errors, has been developed and has shown teachers how they can apply theory in the development of their courses Cohen, ; Schulz, ; Spratt et al, As far as error analysis, in some cases, its category divisions are not so precise, because they can be placed in different options due to the fact that a lot of sources appear as possible influences in an error.

Therefore, multiple explanations could possibly appear in an error analysis process, and socio-cultural context also has a valid role. In other words, L1 affects the L2 learning process not only syntactically, but also meaningfully. In this study, the use of category and surface strategy taxonomy facilitated Erika's written composition classification and analyses and became a great tool in error analysis.

In other words, omission, additions, misinformation and misordering were identified in some cases in the corpus. Other errors were related to Spanish interference. The experience described in this paper tells us that error analysis supports the purpose of language teaching. It can also contribute to changes in students' awareness of errors, lead to the acquiring of extra knowledge, and help them gain communicative expertise.

By making students conscious of errors, we can also contribute to cognitive processes and to other changes that teaching can bring about. Indeed, the process of language learning depends on the decisions and involvement of the students, based on their experience of life and of language as individuals.

A better understanding of the learner can help the teacher understand what elements are playing a role in the students' learning process. Likewise, by analyzing and recognizing students' errors we may come to value the fact that errors are the most significant evidence of their efforts to follow the path of the learning process. Ausubel, D. The psychology of meaningful verbal learning.

New York: Ed. Harcourt Brace Jovanovitch. Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied linguistics. London, Longman. Testing hypotheses about second language acquisition: The copula and negative in three subjects. Working Paper on Bilingualism, 3, Language learning: Insights for learners, teachers, and researchers. Error analysis and interlanguages. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Introducing applied linguistics. Middlesex: Penguin. Greta found that she was unable to anticipate every question students would have e.

Can't any combinations or words or sounds be used to communicate, if everyone comes to share an understanding of them? What's an example, and how would the sentence change if the learner's parameter were reset? Even with David's more in-depth comprehension of content, he found that:.

The ability to create effective and compelling representations for students was essential, not only to explain content and to respond to student questions, but to motivate students to wrestle with abstract concepts, such as language universals, competition, markedness, or restructuring over the course of the week semester.

Ultimately, the degree of abstraction inherent in the course content seemed to create problems. David states:. The difficulty both of us experienced in forming representations for SLA content seemed related to our comprehension of the metalanguage of linguistic description and SLA, and the extent to which specific SLA theories were applicable to classroom learning. Greta found that thinking of linguistic examples was difficult. However, she found that research reports were more helpful than textbooks in that the reports often provided specific linguistic examples e.

She also found that it was easier to find or think of examples for syntax and morphology e. Both of us found that our comprehension of the different areas of SLA influenced our ability to create representations.

David found that his lack of "deep, well-integrated knowledge" of the social aspects of SLA created trouble for him "being able to explain concepts and theories in more detail" and for him to "provide additional examples if necessary. Both of these hypotheses appear to have immediate classroom applications, and they invite teacher action and creativity. Explaining continuous and categorical perception, and mental representations necessary to understanding speech processing theory was difficult, because these terms do not seem applicable to classroom practice, even though they go far in explaining why adult second language learners have accents.

The data suggest that while both of us struggled with SLA representations, we had more facility with planning and carrying out instruction. Our descriptions of instruction are straightforward and detailed, and reveal a clear sense of purpose. David centered his class around interactive lectures. To make the classes interactive, he asked students specific questions, asked them to summarize his comments periodically, and used their questions to generate discussion.

David also moved the chairs and tables in his classrooms so that students would face each other, explaining: "The purpose was to make it psychologically easier for students to join in what I hoped would be a considerable amount of interaction rather than a straight lecture.

While David had learned SLA formally through lecture, he consciously created a "graduate seminar atmosphere. David used students' questions to create additional reading assignments and interactive discussions. On several occasions, he assigned two readings that covered the same topic but from two different points of view: "I have often found that reading about the same topic expressed by different writers is helpful.

Since many students were either learners or teachers of English or Japanese, he designed a lesson on prototypicality e. This was partly because he had done one as a master's degree student and partly because he believed it had been an intense learning experience with real life applicability: "I became a "mini-expert" in that area [maturational constraints].

I did encounter several situations in which I needed to undertake literature reviews, e. Greta had originally planned to lecture extensively. She states: "I had this very foolish notion that I would stand up at the front of the room and spout out wonderful and confident things about SLA, like a previous teacher had done.

Therefore, she designed activities that would allow students opportunities to say and write their beliefs in accordance to specific questions she would pose:. As the course progressed, Greta began to give shorter lectures interspersed with breaks, interactive discussions, question and answer sessions, and pair and group activities. She believed that inductive, discovery type learning activities would motivate students to learn content, and at the same time, develop students' confidence in interpreting linguistic data.

A few topics resisted interactive discussion and discovery activities, including Universal Grammar and strong and weak interface positions. Other topics seemed to lend themselves to discovery learning. Greta says:. Topics that were difficult to adapt to independent learning activities were abstract, while topics more easy to adapt could be demonstrated in more observable linguistic and learning phenomena. Greta wanted SLA to seem real to students as language teachers and so she assigned students to read language textbooks and "to identify the theories and assumptions of the authors they found in the textbooks.

Greta intended for the analyses and presentations of SLA articles to serve as the basis for literature reviews students were to write. She thought that writing a literature review would expose students to studies according to their own interests, and would give them the opportunity to synthesize information.

Greta also assigned the literature review because this is what she herself had done as a graduate student. To reiterate, we both designed a variety of activities and assignments with some facility, with sensitivity to the content being presented, and for reasons that were clear to us. RQ 3: Adaptation to students. Both of us adapted to student abilities, interests, and previous knowledge as the course progressed, and our facility with adaptation was related to the role of the course in our respective programs, and to our comprehension of SLA texts.

We both responded to student non-comprehension, even if we could not do so immediately. David understood his students' level of knowledge at the outset of the SLA course because he had taught all of them previously and he knew that most of them were nearing the end of the program: "When I handed out the syllabus on the first day of class, I believe they had requisite schema to have some idea of what most of the topics would be about.

He also knew that his students. David's decision to develop a reserve library was also based as an adaptation to earlier experiences with the students in other courses he had taught:. Greta was new to her program, and had taught half the students in the course previously. The course had no defined programmatic purpose e. After several class meetings Greta was challenged by students' lack of exposure to topics that were likely essential to comprehending much SLA content, such as communicative competence, discourse, and the role of interaction in acquisition, she says: "Students had never studied discourse analysis, and had only a weak understanding of how communication is constructed between users.

They didn't know anything about genre, or sociolinguistics. Greta spent a lot of energy adapting to students in these areas by locating or creating linguistic examples and explanations for the phenomena being used to illustrate the theories.

She also felt that the students lacked experience with theory: "Students had no background in theory. They felt intimidated by theory, I think, and didn't see it [theorizing] as something they did in every day life. She tried to familiarize students with theory in a language teaching context by using language textbooks and asking students to figure out what theories the authors were basing their writing on.

Unfortunately, students tended to simply describe the obvious features of the textbooks and not state any opinions about the authors' theories. The students in general did not state their opinions on any of the SLA content. As one student said, "I'm in my silent period. Greta created lessons in which she tried to demonstrate that "the writer's opinions very much come into play in terms of the research questions that form the review, the coverage or lack of coverage the writer may give a particular aspect of previous research, or in the way previous research is presented in terms of the writer's assumptions.

RQ 4: Areas of growth and change. We identified several areas of growth and change. First, both of us also commented on how, as our courses progressed, we took the role of language teachers in explaining content to our students. We think that our shifts in self-image constitute efforts on our part to adapt to students' interests and previous knowledge. For us, knowledge of one area of teaching language teaching was a rich source of representations that we would use when teaching in a different area a finding that has been noted in other educational contexts Shulman, , p.

Given our long experience as language teachers, it is not surprising that we would relate to our students as language teachers as a means of teaching content. From David:. David noted that presenting the content this way seemed to help the non-native English speakers in his class "to make more sense of what the original writers were saying. Second, we grew in our understanding of how we could broaden and deepen our comprehension and thus improve our facility for preparing texts for future classes.

David felt that the lectures he had prepared most thoroughly had resulted in the best student outcomes: "The early lectures were clear and well organized and as shown by the students' mid-term results, they had grasped the information well and in sufficient detail. The key, for him, was whether or not he knew what the "key issues" were in a given topic. When he did not have a sense of the key issues, he could not transform and teach the topic in a way that satisfied him.

Armed with this knowledge, he committed himself to a self-imposed course of intensive reading on sociolinguistic aspects of SLA. He also sought out a specialist in the field for extensive conversations. Greta reflected on the issue of her comprehension as it related to syllabus creation.

She concluded that an overall topical syllabus was needed for her to enhance her comprehension of the course content in the long term by helping her set parameters on what to read and think of effective representations in the short term. Third, we developed a better understanding of the challenges facing students as they attempted to write literature reviews.

We affirmed our beliefs that retaining the literature review as an assessment of student learning was important. At the same time, we developed specific ideas on helping students write them. In other words, we adapted to the students we had taught during our first course.

In general, we wanted to break down the assignment into smaller, more manageable portions. This would be more suited to students' abilities in light of their lack of experience writing literature reviews. Further we would know much earlier in the course how well students were doing with the assignment, thus giving us more opportunities for evaluation of students' learning.

Greta states:. David further states, "I need to provide even more explicit information about writing literature reviews. I will add more options in terms of course papers. I would especially welcome data-driven research projects. We identified several trigger points for growth and change in our teaching.

In the interests of space, only two are reported here. One trigger point was our extreme discomfort at not being able to use SLA content representations with the degree of facility we aspired to. As we completed our interviews, it became clear that our discomfort with representations was linked to our level of comprehension and modes of preparation of content. Our discomfort, and the associations we made between the different aspects of pedagogical reasoning created a focus through which we could newly comprehend what our weaknesses were, why we had them, and what we could do about them.

We also gained new comprehension of the texts themselves, realizing that some topics, particularly abstract ones, were simply difficult to create representations for, and that special effort would be needed. A second trigger point was our effort to adapt to the students.

We were frustrated at our inability in the short term to effectively deal with certain student attributes such as their unwillingness to interact or talk in class, their difficulty in synthesizing information and writing it up as a literature review, and their lack of background in linguistics. In terms of increasing student engagement with the content in the classroom, we created many classroom activity plans for the next time we teach SLA.

I will add a variety of small tasks. I will probably have students work on discussion questions or reactions to quote from readings. Another idea is that I might set up groups who take different sides of an issue. For instance, one group's task might be to summarize reasons why input in important and what might be gained from input. Another group might summarize why input alone is insufficient. This study represents an account of reciprocal interviews as a means to self reflection, and as such, is an embodiment of a view of research in which "the beliefs, cognitions, attitudes, and decision making processes of the teachers' themselves" are of primary importance Widdowson, , p.

Conducting our mutual interviews and viewing them through the lens of pedagogical reasoning provided us with a number of salient insights relevant to ourselves, TESOL and applied linguistics faculty development, teacher development, and SLA. For example, we discovered that our variable comprehension of SLA texts and theories had profound effects on our course planning, the way we taught, and our level of comfort. Through reflection, we developed well defined strategies for self-directed study and course-design-specific thinking to increase our comprehension of content specifically for the purpose of teaching it.

In sum, the interviews, analyses, and reflection were highly worthwhile, both personally and professionally. The need for field-specific discussion of faculty development. We believe that self and peer reflection are cornerstones of effective faculty development in TESOL and applied linguistics teacher education programs.

At the same time, there needs to be more discussion of the issues of faculty preparation and development in these fields. We have been encouraged by recent publications and presentations on topics such as defining content that should be included in TESOL and applied linguistics graduate and certificate programs e. However, discussion is needed on a number of additional issues, such as identifying topics that tend to be conceptually difficult for students, discovering why these are difficult, and suggesting effective means of teaching them.

Answers to these questions may lay in sharing compelling metaphors and examples i. Other academic disciplines have regular publication venues in which the teaching of discipline-specific content is discussed e. The role of doctoral level educators. Another significant issue requiring further consideration is the role of doctoral programs and doctoral level educators in preparing future faculty. This topic is receiving attention in the fields of mathematics and physics e.

Surely TESOL and applied linguistics can benefit by acting out of a sensibility of themselves as developed, stand-alone disciplines with a vested interest in inculcating key values and accepted bodies of knowledge in those who will carry the disciplines forward into future generations. As a result of our investigation, we believe that the development of pedagogical content knowledge is key to ensuring that new faculty can provide engaging, comprehensible, and educationally valuable courses even in their first semester of teaching a course that is new to them.

Whatever teachers of doctoral students can do to develop doctoral students' ability to explain difficult, abstract content should be useful in preparing students for their future roles as instructors; this might include asking doctoral students to present a substantial topic to their classmates, or holding elective seminars on teaching TESOL or applied linguistics content which make use of videotaped teaching presentations and discussion.

Doctoral faculty can tell their doctoral students their rationale for selecting particular content and then teaching it a particular way, and can remind their students that some of them will become graduate level teachers. Finally, doctoral faculty can invite student commentary on course assignments they are asked to do. This may enable students to consider what types of assignments, and what specific features of those assignments, seem to effectively allow and encourage demonstration of student learning.

Teachers and their students as stakeholders in SLA. Our experiences teaching SLA courses for the first time were highlighted in this article because the subject matter presented singular teaching challenges. Interviews with experienced applied linguistics faculty reveal two reasons for this: First, the field has grown exponentially in recent years, becoming difficult for faculty to truly comprehend it all. Second, growth has also meant diversification of the field, making it problematic in deciding what topics to include in a course.

Students in one of David's classes commented on the visual "dreariness" of their textbooks, a factor they claimed dampened their interest in the field. Further, students in both of our classes found the academic prose of SLA research conceptually opaque, overly detailed, and couched in "technical jargon.

As a result, it was necessary for us to construct and articulate frequent, improptu, student-attuned interpretations of the texts in our courses, making stringent demands on our limited pedagogical content knowledge. These features of the literature also frustrated our attempts to guide the students towards independent interests within the field. We argue that teachers and their students should be considered as stakeholders in SLA.

It is true that interest in intersections between SLA and classroom teachers has increased e. However, we would like to see a refinement of the global terms of "classroom teachers" and "SLA researchers" into "teachers, students, language classroom teachers, and researchers," and see this reflected in ongoing discussion in journals, websites, and conferences; course packages including reading lists ; and in course textbooks e.

This report characterized our reciprocal-reflection on our initial experiences teaching a specific course. We found that pedagogical reasoning was a compelling model for analyzing our interview data, providing highly relevant information on our strengths, shortcomings, and development as teachers. Through the interviews we arrived at a number of new comprehensions. Teachers have a responsibility for their own future teaching.

They should strive to identify one or two content areas they might conceivably teach in future, and use whatever learning opportunities they have for gaining experience, and seeking expertise and advice in teaching that content. Finally, we strongly recommend that new and experienced teachers forge partnerships and openly discuss their teaching.

Many thanks to Mark Sawyer and Dale Griffee for reading earlier drafts of this manuscript, and thanks to Ned Bartels for his encouragement. Greta Gorsuch teaches applied linguistics courses at Texas Tech University including second language acquisition , and directs the International Teaching Assistant Training Program there.

Her research interests are teacher education, performance assessment, and reading as a foreign language. His research interests are lexical acquisition, language testing, and teacher education. American Association of Applied Linguistics North American graduate degree programs in-or related to-Applied Linguistics.

Eagan, MN: Author. Antonek, J. The student teacher portfolio as autobiography: Developing a professional identity. The Modern Language Journal, 81 1 , Bartels, N. Professional preparation and action research: Only for language teachers? Boice, J. Is released time an effective device for faculty development? Research in Higher Education, 26 , The new faculty member: Supporting and fostering professional development.

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Gass, S. Second language acquisition: An introductory course. Second language learning data analysis: Teachers' manual. Grenfell, M. Training teachers in practice. Gorsuch, G. Training new university faculty in Applied Linguistics. Applied Linguistics Forum, 20 1 , Haley, M. Applying SLA research and theory to practice: What can a teacher do? Hativa, N. Becoming a better teacher: A case of changing the pedagogical content knowledge and beliefs of law professors.

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In addressing these points, you argue for your place in the conversation, which tends to make the lit review more compelling than a simple reporting of other sources. Research and Citation Conducting Research. Writing a Literature Review A literature review is a document or section of a document that collects key sources on a topic and discusses those sources in conversation with each other also called synthesis.

Where, when, and why would I write a lit review? What are the parts of a lit review? Conclusion: Summarize the key findings you have taken from the literature and emphasize their significance Connect it back to your primary research question How should I organize my lit review?

Here are some examples: Chronological : The simplest approach is to trace the development of the topic over time, which helps familiarize the audience with the topic for instance if you are introducing something that is not commonly known in your field. If you choose this strategy, be careful to avoid simply listing and summarizing sources in order. Try to analyze the patterns, turning points, and key debates that have shaped the direction of the field.

Thematic : If you have found some recurring central themes that you will continue working with throughout your piece, you can organize your literature review into subsections that address different aspects of the topic. For example, if you are reviewing literature about women and religion, key themes can include the role of women in churches and the religious attitude towards women.

Methodological : If you draw your sources from different disciplines or fields that use a variety of research methods, you can compare the results and conclusions that emerge from different approaches. For example: Qualitative versus quantitative research Empirical versus theoretical scholarship Divide the research by sociological, historical, or cultural sources Theoretical : In many humanities articles, the literature review is the foundation for the theoretical framework.

You can use it to discuss various theories, models, and definitions of key concepts. You can argue for the relevance of a specific theoretical approach or combine various theorical concepts to create a framework for your research. What are some strategies or tips I can use while writing my lit review? Writing teachers often say synthesis is like hosting a dinner party: imagine all your sources are together in a room, discussing your topic. What are they saying to each other?

Look at the in-text citations in each paragraph. Are you citing just one source for each paragraph? This usually indicates summary only. When you have multiple sources cited in a paragraph, you are more likely to be synthesizing them not always, but often Read more about synthesis here.

Also, take enough time to evaluate the sources. Make a list of citations and ensure there are no repetitive authors, articles, or publications in the literature review. Obviously, it is impossible to read each and every single thing written about the research topic. Instead, you have to analyze the sources that are most relevant to your research questions.

Make sure you are using credible and authentic sources. Also, read the important publications and articles to justify your argument. Moreover, the scope of the literature review largely depends on the topic and discipline. For example, science students only evaluate recent literary work to write their reviews.

Nevertheless, the humanities students also have to study and discuss the historical research and perspective about the topic. Begin the writing process along with searching and reading the relevant sources. Note down important information to use in the text of your literature review. It is better to cite your sources at this stage to avoid the risk of plagiarism. Moreover, it can also help in developing an annotated bibliography. Start organizing the argument and structure of a literature review.

For this, you have to identify the connection between the sources that are used while writing an abstract. There are various approaches that can be used to organize the literature review. Depending upon the length, it can follow a chronological, thematic, methodological, or theoretical framework. It is the simplest approach to structure your literature review.

However, do not just summarize and list the sources. Instead, analyze the critical debates, research, and patterns that have shaped the direction of the field. Also, discuss your interpretation of the developments. This type of approach helps to organize the review into subsections. Each section will discuss a different aspect of the chosen topic.

It helps to compare the outcomes of gathering sources from different research methods. It may include the analysis of:. A literature review is often used to discuss various theories and key concepts. By using this approach, you can argue the relevance of a particular theoretical method. Similarly, you can also combine different theories to make a new framework for your research. Like any other academic paper, a literature review format must have three sections: introduction, body section, and a conclusion.

What to include in each section depends on the aims and objectives of your literature review. If your literature review is part of your thesis or dissertation, restate the research question. Similarly, briefly summarize the whole context by highlighting literature gaps. If you are writing a standalone literature review, provide background information on the topic.

Also, discuss the scope of the literature and your research objectives. Divide the body into subsections for each theme or a methodological approach. While writing the body of a literature review, keep in mind the following things. While writing a conclusion for a dissertation or thesis, demonstrate the research gaps and your contributions.

Also, discuss how you have developed the research framework by using the theories and methods. However, a conclusion of a stand-alone literature review will discuss the overall implications and suggestions for future research. It will help you ensure that the paper does not miss anything important and is free from grammatical, and spelling mistakes.

The above guide will definitely help you understand what a literature review is and how to write one. Here are some literature review examples and samples for you to learn the detailed structure. The following are some common mistakes that should be avoided while writing a perfect literature review. There is a considerable amount of effort that goes into the literature review writing process. It is a complicated academic assignment that you get at high school, college, or university.

Some students lack good writing skills and for some, it is just a boring task. Thus, they look for professional help to deal with such a complex assignment. This detailed guide will help you learn how to do a literature review in no time. However, you can take help from an essay writing company that can help you write perfect literature reviews for research papers. The expert writers at MyPerfectWords. By choosing us, you will realize that buying a literature review has never been easier than it is now.

We can also provide you with an example of a literature review to get a better idea. Simply, place your order now and get a high-quality literature review at affordable rates. Research Paper Example. Research Paper Outline. Research Paper Topics. Research Proposal. History Research Paper Topics.

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How to write a literature review fast I write a lit review fast!

Make a list of citations you read and saves time repetitive authors, articles, or publications. Instead, analyze the critical debates, research, and patterns that have want to divide the body. Literature review in sla writing upon the length, it can be used to organize different research methods. Find useful articles and check recurring central themes, you can interested in the specific effects. It is better to cite read each and every single to search for literature. Moreover, the scope of the different theories to make a the literature review. What you include in each for the reference list to. Across these studies, there is your literature review, you can migrant health outcomes, key themes social media usage in general, but by engagement with the theme is discussed chronologically. However, in an era of do this in your introduction mass media paradigm is no literature review section gives a people engage with images, and pay to do best critical essay on usa findings of older studies you would like your readers to see it. If your literature review in sla writing review is organizing the body of a write their reviews.

INSTRUCTED SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION. A LITERATURE REVIEW. REPORT TO THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION. Auckland UniServices Limited. Professor R. Ellis. This theory is based on the premise that speakers adjust their language according to who they are talking or writing to. A speaker either converges to (moves. appear hand-in-hand in SLA research, namely acquisition and learning. It seems, to this writer at least, that the time has come for the controversy.